3 questions to learn if your baby's gut is healthy.
by Nehal Aggarwal, Associate Editor | The Bump | February 2021
A new study published in Scientific Reports has found that approximately nine out of 10 infants are born with gut microbiome deficiencies.
The study is the largest to date to look at the widespread deficiency. It looked at fecal samples from 227 babies under 6 months old during their pediatrician visits in the states of California, Georgia, Oregon, Pennsylvania and South Carolina. They looked at both the bacteria type present and how much of it there was to determine an infant’s bacterial composition. They also specifically looked at the bacteria’s ability to fully use the breast milk consumed by baby. According to the report, this is a sign of the presence of health-promoting bacteria in the gut.
In particular, the study called out the absence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) in the babies’ gut, a type of bacteria that plays a big role in infant health and development of the immune system. It provides the most benefits to infant gut health and has the ability to fully access the nutritional benefits of breast milk, doing so by breaking down the carbs found in breast milk so that baby’s body can access them.
“The vast majority of infants are deficient in this key gut bacterium from the earliest weeks of life, and this is completely off the radar for most parents and pediatricians, alike” study co-author Karl Sylvester, MD, Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics and Associate Dean of Maternal Child Health Research, Stanford University, said in a press release. “This study provides the clearest picture to date of just how widespread this issue is and highlights the need to address B. infantis deficiency in the infant gut right from the start.”
The researchers also found that on average, bacteria that could be dangerous made up around 93 percent of all bacteria in the infant gut microbiome, the most prevalent of which were E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and C. diff. According to the study, many of these bacteria are known for their antibiotic resistance genes. In fact, the researchers found a total of 325 antibiotic resistant genes in the gut bacteria, 54 percent of which were ones that allow bacterial resistance to several antibiotics.
“The infant gut is essentially a blank slate at birth, and rapidly acquires bacteria from mom and the environment. We were surprised not only by the extensive lack of good bacteria, but the incredibly high presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria and an environment of antibiotic resistance that appears to be so widespread,” said Dr. Sylvester. “The infant gut microbiome in the U.S. is clearly dysfunctional, and we believe this is a critical factor underpinning many of the infant and childhood ailments we see today across the country.”
According to the study, over the past 100 years, there has been a decline of Bifidobacteria in baby’s gut, which researchers say could be attributed to several factors, including increased use of antibiotics, infant formula and C-section delivery. However, some, if not all, of these factors may be out of parents’ control.
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