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Scientific Citation Index

The following well-respected publications from over a decade of research and clinical trials at the University of California, Davis Medical Center found that B. infantis restored baby’s gut and reduced bad bacteria that is linked to a higher risk of health issues, now and later in life.

1.  AlFaleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD005496.
2.  Bäckhed, F.; Roswall, J.; Peng, Y.; et al. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life Cell Host & Microbe, 2015, 17, 690 - 703
3.  Bindels, Laure B., et al. "Towards a more comprehensive concept for prebiotics." Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 12.5 (2015): 303-310.
4.  Bokulich NA, Chung J, Battaglia T et al. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life. Sci Transl Med. 2016;8(343): 343ra82. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aad7121.
5.  Bubnov RV, Spivak MY, Lazarenko LM et al. Probiotics and immunity: provisional role for personalized diets and disease prevention. EPMA J. 2015;6:14.
6.  Cryan, JF and Dinan TG. Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13(10):701-712.
7.  Frese, Steven A., et al. "Persistence of Supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in Breastfed Infants." mSphere 2.6 (2017): e00501-17
8.  Davis JC, Lewis ZT, Krishnan S et al. Growth and morbidity of Gambian infants are influenced by maternal milk oligosaccharides and infant gut microbiotia. Sci Rep. 2017;7: 40466. doi: 10.1038/srep40466.
9.  Ewaschuk JB, Diaz H, Meddings L et al. Secreted bioactive factors from Bifidobacterium infantis enhance epithelial cell barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295(5): G1025-G1034.
10.    Fujimura KE, Sitarik AR, Havstad S et al. Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. Nat Med. 2016;22(10):1187-1191.
11.    Fukuda S, Toh H, Hase K et al. Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature. 2011; 469(7331):543-547.
12.    Gura T. Nature’s first functional food. Science. 2014;345(6198):747-749.
13.  Huda MN, Lewis Z, Kalanetra KM et al. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):e362-e372. doi: 1542/peds.2013-3937. Epub 2014 Jul 7. 
14.  Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth. Extent and consequences of childhood obesity. In: Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, eds. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US); 2005:54-78.
15.  Kalliomäki M, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3)534-538.
16.  Lewis ZT, Totten SM, Smilowitz JT et al. Maternal fucosyltransferase 2 status affects the gut bifidobacterial communities of breastfed infants. Microbiome. 2015;3:13. doi: 10.1186/s40168-015-0071-z. eCollection 2015.
17.  LoCascio RG, Desai P, Sela DA et al. Broad conversation of milk utilization genes in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis as revealed by comparative genomic hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76(22):7373-7381.
18.  Palmer C, Bik EM, DiGiulio DB et al. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota. PLoS Biol. 2007;5(7):e177.
19.  Pammi M, Cope J, Tarr PI et al. Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):31.
20.  Patki A. Eat dirt and avoid atopy: the hygiene hypothesis revisited. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:2-4.
21.  Patterson CC, Dahlquist G, Soltész G et al. Is childhood-onset type 1 diabetes a wealth-related disease? An ecological analysis of European incidence rates. Diabetologia. 2001;44(suppl 3):B9-B16.
22.  Pokusaeva K, Fitzgerald GF, van Sinderen D. Carbohydrate metabolism in Bifidobacteria. Genes Nutr. 2011;6(3):285-306.
23.  Postler TS and Ghosh S. Understanding the holobiont: how microbial metabolites affect human health and shape the immune system. Cell Metab. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.008.
24.  Sanders ME, Akkermans LMA, Haller D et al. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use. Gut Microbes. 2010;1(3):164-185.
25.  Sanders ME. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011;45 Suppl:S115-119.
26.  Smilowitz JT, Lebrilla CB, Mills DA et al. Breast milk oligosaccharides: structure-function relationships in the neonate. Annu Rev Nutr. 2014;34:143-169.
27.  Smilowitz JT, Moya J, Breck MA et al. Safety and tolerability of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis EVC001 supplementation in healthy term breastfed infants: a phase I clinical trial.BMC pediatrics 2017 17:133.
28.  Tannock GW, Lee PS, Wong KH, et al: Why don't all infants have bifidobacteria in their stool? Front Microbiol 2016;7:834.
29.  Tannock GW. Commentary: remembrance of microbes past. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:13-15.
30.  Tisdall FF and Brown AB. Studies on the acidity (hydrogen ion concentration) of infants’ stools. Am J Dis Child. 1924;27(4):312-331.
31.  Underwood MA, German JB, Lebrilla CB, Mills DA. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis: champion colonizer of the infant gut. Pediatr Res. 2015;77:229-235.
32.  Underwood MA, Sohn K. The microbiota of the extremely preterm infant. Clin Perinatol. 2017;44(2):407-427.
33.  Vatanen T, Kostic AD, d’Hennezel E et al. Variation in microbiome LPS immunogenicity contributes to autoimmunity in humans. Cell. 2016;165(4):842-853.
35.  Wang Y, Hoenig JD, Malin KJ et al. 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of fecal microbiota from preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis. ISME J. 2009;3(8):944-954.
36.  Young SL, Simon MA, Baird MA, Tannock GW, Bibiloni R, et al. (2004) Bifidobacterial species differentially affect expression of cell surface markers and cytokines of dendritic cells harvested from cord blood. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 686–690.SL.
37.  Zivkovic AM and Barile D. Bovine milk as a source of functional oligosaccharides for improving human health. Adv Nutr. 2011;2:284-289.
38.  “Births – Method of Delivery.” National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 October 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/delivery.htm. Last accessed 10 March 2017.
39.  Breastfeeding Report Card – United States 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2014breastfeedingreportcard.pdf
40.  “CDC: 1 in 3 antibiotic prescriptions unnecessary.” CDC Newsroom. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3 May 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0503-unnecessary-prescriptions…. Last accessed 10 March 2017.
41.  de Weerth, Carolina, et al. "Intestinal microbiota of infants with colic: development and specific signatures." Pediatrics 131.2 (2013): e550-e558.
42.  de Weerth, Carolina, Susana Fuentes, and Willem M. de Vos. "Crying in infants: On the possible role of intestinal microbiota in the development of colic." Gut Microbes 4.5 (2013): 416-421.
43.  Savino, Francesco, et al. "Looking for new treatments of Infantile Colic." Italian journal of pediatrics 40.1 (2014): 53.
44.  Dubois, Nancy E., and Katherine E. Gregory. "Characterizing the intestinal microbiome in infantile colic: Findings based on an integrative review of the literature." Biological research for nursing 18.3 (2016): 307-315.
45.  Bäckhed, Fredrik, et al. "Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life." Cell host & microbe 17.5 (2015): 690-703.
46.  Sirilun, S., et al. "Impact of maternal bifidobacteria and the mode of delivery on Bifidobacterium microbiota in infants." Beneficial microbes 6.6 (2015): 767-774.
47.  Frese, Steven A., et al. "Persistence of Supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in Breastfed Infants." mSphere 2.6 (2017): e00501-17.
48.  Makino, Hiroshi, et al. "Mother-to-infant transmission of intestinal bifidobacterial strains has an impact on the early development of vaginally delivered infant's microbiota." PloS one 8.11 (2013): e78331.
49.  Yassour, Moran, et al. "Natural history of the infant gut microbiome and impact of antibiotic treatment on bacterial strain diversity and stability." Science translational medicine 8.343 (2016): 343ra81-343ra81.
50.  Berg, Ronald W., Michael C. Milligan, and Frank C. Sarbaugh. "Association of skin wetness and pH with diaper dermatitis." Pediatric Dermatology 11.1 (1994): 18-20.
51.  Henrick BM et al. mSphere. 2019;3(2):e00041-18.
52.  Pratt, Arthur G., and W. T. Read Jr. "Influence of type of feeding on pH of stool, pH of skin, and incidence of perianal dermatitis in the newborn infant." Journal of Pediatrics 46 (1955): 539-543.
53.  Kazaks, Emily L., and Alfred T. Lane. "Diaper dermatitis." Pediatric Clinics 47.4 (2000): 909-919.
54.  Buckingham, Kent W., and Ronald W. Berg. "Etiologic factors in diaper dermatitis: the role of feces." Pediatric Dermatology3.2 (1986): 107-112.
55.  Costello A, Peterson SS. Birth in a time of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/commentaries/antibiotic-resistant-bacte…. Published August 29, 2016. Accessed August 7, 2019. 
56.  Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations. 2014. 
57. G. Casaburi et al. “Early-life gut microbiome modulation reduces the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. (2019) 1-18
58.  G Casaburi, SA Frese. “Colonization of breastfed infants by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 reduces virulence gene abundance.” Human Microbiome Journal 9 (2018)
59.  Arrieta MC et al. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2018;142(2):424-434 e10. 
60.  Rhoads JM et al. Journal of Pediatrics 2018;203:55-61 e3. 
61.  Maffeis C et al. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 2016;32(7):700-709. 
62.  Orivuori L et al. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2015;45(5):928-939. 
63.  Henrick, BM Colonization by B. infantis EVC001 modulates enteric inflammation in exclusively breastfed infants.
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