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modern consequences

The infant gut microbiome has a past. Follow along.

Over the past 5 million years, B. infantis and human milk have co-evolved to provide maximum nutrition and health benefits to humans.1 Even 100 years ago, scientists demonstrated that B. infantis dominated the gut microbiome of breastfed infants.2,3 Today, this is no longer the case.4,5,6

Unintended Consequences

The twentieth and twenty-first centuries have been a time of rapid change and innovation. Modern medicine has seen breakthroughs that have been life-changing and life-saving for many people: cesarean sections, antibiotics, and formula-feeding, to name a few.3,5

modern consequences

Unfortunately, our modern society may also have a few downsides. During the last century, there has also been a dramatic rise in allergic, autoimmune, and metabolic conditions:

  • Allergies Icon

    Incidence of atopic dermatitis in infants born between 1960 and 2000 has risen 5-fold.8

  • Diabetes Icon

    Type 1 diabetes incidence has increased 5-fold in children from developed countries versus those from developing countries.9

  • Obesity Icon

    Childhood obesity prevalence in the U.S. has risen two to three fold since 1970.10

global bif graph

The Missing Link

While the majority of infants in developed nations are missing B. infantis in the gut microbiome, it is still the predominant colonizer in infants born in less industrialized nations.9,11,12 Often, in these countries people live in less hygienic conditions, and infants are mostly breastfed.3,8

Furthermore, infants born in these countries also have less incidence of eczema, allergies, obesity, and diabetes compared to infants born in the developed world.3,8,13 Research indicates a link between the rise in allergic and autoimmune conditions and the decrease in beneficial bacteria found in the infant gut microbiome.

Doctor's care

Where Do We Go From Here? 

Fortunately, the infant gut microbiome can be restored to its original, natural state—with Evivo (activated B. infantis EVC001, ActiBif®).

Evivo is activated, meaning it is designed to work with breast milk better than any other strain of bacteria. Evivo partners with human milk oligosaccharides, or HMOs, in breast milk—a diverse set of carbohydrates that make up 15% of the nutrients in breast milk. HMOs are indigestible by infants and often go to waste or are used by the wrong microorganisms.

Evivo is able to capture all the HMOs in breast milk and is able to consume them in a unique and superior manner compared to other bacteria. Evivo is then able to convert HMOs into nutrients that nourish both the infant and the infant gut microbiome and suppress the growth of potentially harmful bacteria.

Research shows us the right diet feeds the right bacteria in the infant gut microbiome. Restoring the infant gut microbiome provides an optimal start for healthier humans in the future. Evivo can help us get there.


References1. LoCascio RG, Desai P, Sela DA et al. Broad conversation of milk utilization genes in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis as revealed by comparative genomic hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76(22):7373-7381.
2. Tannock GW, Lee PS, Wong KH, et al: Why don't all infants have bifidobacteria in their stool? Front Microbiol 2016;7:834.
3. Tannock GW. Commentary: remembrance of microbes past. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:13-15.
4. Lewis ZT, Totten SM, Smilowitz JT et al. Maternal fucosyltransferase 2 status affects the gut bifidobacterial communities of breastfed infants. Microbiome. 2015;3:13. doi: 10.1186/s40168-015-0071-z. eCollection 2015.
5. Young SL, Simon MA, Baird MA, Tannock GW, Bibiloni R, et al. (2004) Bifidobacterial species differentially affect expression of cell surface markers and cytokines of dendritic cells harvested from cord blood. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 686–690.SL.
6.Bäckhed, F.; Roswall, J.; Peng, Y.; et al. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life Cell Host & Microbe, 2015, 17, 690 - 703

7. Bokulich NA, Chung J, Battaglia T et al. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life. Sci Transl Med. 2016;8(343): 343ra82. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aad7121.
8. Patki A. Eat dirt and avoid atopy: the hygiene hypothesis revisited. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:2-4.
9. Patterson CC, Dahlquist G, Soltész G et al. Is childhood-onset type 1 diabetes a wealth-related disease? An ecological analysis of European incidence rates. Diabetologia. 2001;44(suppl 3):B9-B16.
10. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth. Extent and consequences of childhood obesity. In: Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, eds. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US); 2005:54-78.
11. Huda MN, Lewis Z, Kalanetra KM et al. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):e362-e372. doi: 1542/peds.2013-3937. Epub 2014 Jul 7.
12.Davis JC, Lewis ZT, Krishnan S et al. Growth and morbidity of Gambian infants are influenced by maternal milk oligosaccharides and infant gut microbiotia. Sci Rep. 2017;7: 40466. doi: 10.1038/srep40466.
13. Vatanen T, Kostic AD, d’Hennezel E et al. Variation in microbiome LPS immunogenicity contributes to autoimmunity in humans. Cell. 2016;165(4):842-853.